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A People's History of the United States - Howard Zinn - Paperback
At this point, A People's History Of The United States is available in regular form, read aloud on audio, on posters, in a teaching edition, and as just the twentieth century chapters we have all but the posters. And now here. Please Enjoy! Columbus, The Indians, and Human Progress 2. Drawing the Color Line 3. Persons of Mean and Vile Condition 4. Tyranny is Tyranny 5. A Kind of Revolution 6. The Intimately Oppressed 7. The Other Civil War Robber Barons And Rebels The Empire and the People One of the earliest cultures in the present-day United States was the Clovis culture , who are primarily identified by the use of fluted spear points called the Clovis point.
Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in near Clovis, New Mexico. The Folsom culture was similar, but is marked by the use of the Folsom point. A later migration identified by linguists, anthropologists, and archeologists occurred around 8, BCE. The Adena began constructing large earthwork mounds around BCE. They are the earliest known people to have been mound builders , however, there are mounds in the United States that predate this culture.
These mounds likely served a religious purpose. The Adenans were absorbed into the Hopewell tradition , a powerful people who traded tools and goods across a wide territory.
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They continued the Adena tradition of mound building, with remnants of several thousand still in existence across the core of their former territory in southern Ohio. The Hopewell pioneered a trading system called the Hopewell Exchange System, which at its greatest extent ran from the present-day Southeast up to the Canadian side of Lake Ontario. The Mississippians were a broad group of tribes. Their most important city was Cahokia , near modern-day St.
Louis, Missouri. At its peak in the 12th century, the city had an estimated population of 20,, larger than the population of London at the time.
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Cahokia, like many other cities and villages of the time, depended on hunting, foraging, trading, and agriculture, and developed a class system with slaves and human sacrifice that was influenced by societies to the south, like the Mayans. Some grew to be the size of cities, with Pueblo Bonito along the Chaco River in New Mexico once consisting of rooms.
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The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest were likely the most affluent Native Americans. Many distinct cultural and political nations developed there, but they all shared certain beliefs traditions, and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol. Permanent villages began to develop in this region as early as 1, BCE, and these communities celebrated by the gift-giving feast of the potlatch.
These gatherings were usually organized to commemorate special events such as the raising of a Totem pole of the celebration of a new chief. Their system of affiliation was a kind of federation, different from the strong, centralized European monarchies. It has been suggested that their culture contributed to political thinking during the development of the United States government. The Iroquois were powerful, waging war with many neighboring tribes, and later, Europeans. As their territory expanded, smaller tribes were forced further west, including the Osage , Kaw , Ponca , and Omaha peoples.
Polynesians began to settle in the Hawaiian Islands between the 1st and 10th centuries. Around CE, Tahitian explorers found and began settling the area as well. This marked the rise of the Hawaiian civilization, which would be largely separated from the rest of the world until the arrival of the British years later. Europeans under the British explorer James Cook arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in , and within five years of contact, European military technology would help Kamehameha I conquer most of the people, and eventually unify the islands for the first time; establishing the Hawaiian Kingdom.
After a period of exploration sponsored by major European nations , the first successful English settlement was established in Europeans brought horses, cattle, and hogs to the Americas and, in turn, took back maize, turkeys , tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco, beans, and squash to Europe. Many explorers and early settlers died after being exposed to new diseases in the Americas. However, the effects of new Eurasian diseases carried by the colonists, especially smallpox and measles, were much worse for the Native Americans, as they had no immunity to them.
They suffered epidemics and died in very large numbers, usually before large-scale European settlement began. Their societies were disrupted and hollowed out by the scale of deaths. Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to reach the present-day United States, after Christopher Columbus 's expeditions beginning in established possessions in the Caribbean.
In , Hernando de Soto extensively explored the Southeast,  and a year later Francisco Coronado explored from Arizona to central Kansas in search of golds. New Netherland was established in by the company to capitalize on the North American fur trade. Growth was slow at first due to mismanagement by the Dutch and Native American conflicts.
Despite being Calvinists and building the Reformed Church in America , the Dutch were tolerant of other religions and cultures and traded with the Iroquois to the north. The colony served as a barrier to British expansion from New England , and as a result a series of wars were fought. The colony was taken over by Britain in and its capital was renamed New York City. New Netherland left an enduring legacy on American cultural and political life of religious tolerance and sensible trade in urban areas and rural traditionalism in the countryside typified by the story of Rip Van Winkle.
Roosevelt , Eleanor Roosevelt and the Frelinghuysens. A decade later, Jacques Cartier sailed in search of the Northwest Passage, but instead discovered the Saint Lawrence River and laid the foundation for French colonization of the Americas in New France. After the collapse of the first Quebec colony in the s, French Huguenots settled at Fort Caroline near present-day Jacksonville in Florida. After this, the French mostly remained in Quebec and Acadia , but far-reaching trade relationships with Native Americans throughout the Great Lakes and Midwest spread their influence.
French colonists in small villages along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers lived in farming communities that served as a grain source for Gulf Coast settlements. The English, drawn in by Francis Drake's raids on Spanish treasure ships leaving the New World, settled the strip of land along the east coast in the s. It would be twenty years before another attempt. The early British colonies were established by private groups seeking profit, and were marked by starvation, disease, and Native American attacks. Many immigrants were people seeing religious freedom or escaping political oppression, peasants displaced by the Industrial Revolution, or those simply seeking adventure and opportunity.
In some areas, Native Americans taught colonists how to plant and harvest the native crops. In others, they attacked the settlers.
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Virgin forests provided an ample supply of building material and firewood. Natural inlets and harbors lined the coast, providing easy ports for essential trade with Europe. Settlements remained close to the coast due to this as well as Native American resistance and the Appalachian Mountains that were found in the interior. The colonists were preoccupied with the search for gold and were equipped for life in the New World.
Captain John Smith held the fledgling Jamestown together in the first year, and the colony descended into anarchy and nearly failed when he returned to England two years later. John Rolfe began experimenting with tobacco from the West Indies in , and by the first shipment arrived in London. It became Virginia's chief source of revenue within a decade. In , after years of disease and Indian attacks, including the Powhatan attack of , King James I revoked the Virginia Company's charter and made Virginia a royal colony.
New England was initially settled primarily by Puritans fleeing religious persecution. The Pilgrims sailed for Virginia on the Mayflower in , but were knocked off course by a storm and landed at Plymouth , where they agreed to a social contract of rules in the Mayflower Compact. Like Jamestown, Plymouth suffered from disease and starvation, but local Wampanoag Indians taught the colonists how to farm maize.
Plymouth was followed by the Puritans and Massachusetts Bay Colony in They maintained a charter for self-government separate from England, and elected founder John Winthrop as the governor for most of its early years. Roger Williams opposed Winthrop's treatment of Native Americans and religious intolerance, and established the colony of Providence Plantations , later Rhode Island , on the basis of freedom of religion.
Other colonists established settlements in the Connecticut River Valley, and on the coasts of present-day New Hampshire and Maine.meister-walter.de/images/2019-10-12/loj-lollipop-s8.php
Native American attacks continued, with the most significant occurring in the Pequot War and the King Philip's War. New England became a center of commerce and industry due to the poor, mountainous soil making agriculture difficult. Rivers were harnessed to power grain mills and sawmills, and the numerous harbors facilitated trade.
Tight-knit villages developed around these industrial centers, and Boston became one of America's most important ports. In the s, the Middle Colonies of New York , New Jersey , and Delaware were established in the former Dutch New Netherland, and were characterized by a large degree of ethnic and religious diversity. At the same time, the Iroquois of New York, strengthened by years of fur trading with Europeans, formed the powerful Iroquois Confederacy. The last colony in this region was Pennsylvania , established in by William Penn as a home for religious dissenters, including Quakers , Methodists , and the Amish.
While Quakers populated the city, German immigrants began to flood into the Pennsylvanian hills and forests, while the Scots-Irish pushed into the far western frontier. The extremely rural Southern Colonies contrasted greatly with the north. Outside of Virginia, the first British colony south of New England was Maryland , established as a Catholic haven in The economy of these two colonies was built entirely on yeoman farmers and planters.
The planters established themselves in the Tidewater region of Virginia, establishing massive plantations with slave labor, while the small-scale farmers made their way into political office. In , the Province of Carolina was established, and Charleston became the region's great trading port. While Virginia's economy was based on tobacco, Carolina was much more diversified, exporting rice, indigo, and lumber as well.
In the colony was split in half, creating North and South Carolina. Religiosity expanded greatly after the First Great Awakening , a religious revival in the s led by preachers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield.
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